Непряма мова (Reported Speech) — це слова людини, передані іншою людиною. У реченнях з непрямою мовою лапки не вживаються, на відміну від речень із прямою мовою (Direct Speech). При трансформації речень з прямою мовою у речення з непрямою мовою особові та присвійні займенники змінюються відповідно до змісту:
Не says, «І need a computer».— Не says that he needs a computer. She says, «This is my dictionary».— She says this is her dictionary.
У реченнях з непрямою мовою вживаються дієслова say та tell. Say вживається, якщо ми вказуємо або не вказуємо людину, до якої звертаємось. Tell вживається тільки тоді, коли ми вказуємо людину, до якої звертаємось:
She said to те, «I have по time».— She said that she had no time. She said to те/told me that she had no time.
У деяких випадках вживається тільки say або fell. Зверніть увагу на правила вживання дієслів say та tell з деякими словосполученнями.
Say вживається у таких словосполученнях: say good morning/afternoon etc., say something, say one's prayers, say a few words, say so, etc.
Tell вживається у таких словосполученнях: tell the truth, tell a lie, tell somebody the time, tell somebody one's name, tell a story, tell a secret, tell somebody the way, tell one from another, etc.
У реченнях з непрямою мовою часто вживається сполучник that, але його можна випустити:
Не said, «І watch TV every evening».— He said that he watched TV every evening. He said he watched TV every evening.
1. Circle the correct item.
1) Diana says/tells that she has already washed the dishes. 2) Can you say/tell me what time the train departs? 3) The child came up to his mother and said/told something in a quiet voice. 4) He said/told «good night» and left the room. 5) Can you say/tell this girl from her sister? 6) Who said/told you I won a lottery? 7) I know Nick very well. He always says/tells the truth. 8) Sue said/told me about the meeting yesterday.
2. Complete the sentences with say or tell in the correct form.
1) Julia's children always ... «good morning» to the neighbors.
2) Everybody knows that it's very difficult to ... the twins one from another. 3) Little Sarah ... her prayers and went to bed. 4) What's wrong with Jim? He didn't... a word yesterday. 5) I didn't understand what she ... to me. 6) Could you ... me the way to the hospital, please? 7) I promise I will never ... your secret to anybody. 8) Dave didn't hear what I... him. 9) «Wash these apples», the woman ... to her daughter. 10) I don't know that boy. Can you ... me his name?
Якщо у словах автора в реченнях з прямою мовою дієслово-присудок стоїть у теперішньому часі, то після перетворення прямої мови на непряму час дієслів не змінюється:
They say, «Wе are playing chess».— They say (that) they are playing chess.
She says, «I bought some ice cream».— She says (that) she bought some ice cream.
Якщо у словах автора в реченнях із прямою мовою дієслово-присудок стоїть у минулому часі, то після перетворення прямої мови на непряму час дієслів змінюється таким чином:
She said, «I get up at seven
He said, «I am watching a film».
He said, «I got a letters.
She said, «I have cooked
She said, «I will meet you».
Present Perfect Continuous: She said, «I have been working for 3 hourss.
She said that she got up at seven o'clock.
He said he was watching a film. Past Perfect:
He said he had got a letter. Past Perfect:
She said she had cooked
She said she would meet me.
Past Perfect Continuous:
She said she had been working
for 3 hours.
Модальні дієслова та дієслово to be змінюються на відповідні форми минулого часу (окрім дієслів should, could, might): Не said, ні сап ride a bike».— Не said he could ride a bike. She said, «I am hungry».— She said she was hungry. The teacher said, «You should learn the poem by heart».— The teacher said we should learn the poem by heart.
Минулий тривалий та минулий доконаний часи, як правило, не змінюються у непрямій мові:
They said, «We were dancing».— They said that they were dancing.
3. Circle the correct item.
1) Sue says she wants/wanted to go to bed earlier today.
2) Mark said he will/would pack his rucksack in the morning.
3) The secretary said that the boss is/was waiting for us. 4) The policeman says that there is/was no parking here. 5) The nurse said that the injured man have/had just come to. 6) The shop assistant says that he has/had already packed our purchase.
7) A little boy said that he can/could play football very well.
8) Jessica says that she will /would be in her room. 9) Tony said that he has/had been washing his car for twenty minutes. 10) Andy said that his parents will/would return in a week.
4. Report the statements.
1) Vicky says, «I always have a shower in the morning”. 2) Tom said, «My brother trains in the gym three times a week”. 3) Jane said, «I'm preparing for my test”. 4) Mike says, «I have watched this film twice already”. 5) Nick said, «Tim and Peter are waiting for me at the metro”. 6) Victor said, «My brother can't drive very well”. 7) The doctor said, «You should take these tablets three times a day after meals”. 8) The woman said, «My daughter is two years old and she can speak”. 9) My father said, «I have just bought three tickets for the concert”. 10) Alice said, «I have been cleaning your room for two hours, Bob”. 11) Granny said to Ben, «Your hands are very dirty”. 12) Max said to Fred, «You can use my calculator”. 13) Ella said, «I will iron your shirt in some minutes, Den”. 14) Brian said, «We didn't meet Phil in the supermarket”. 15) Cathy said to us, «I'll explain everything a bit later”. 16) We said, «We weren't discussing a new project at that time”. 17) Roger said, «My boss wants me to go to Brussels”. 18) Mr Jackson said, «I have bought a new car for my son”.
Якщо в реченнях з прямою мовою йдеться про загальновідомі факти, то після перетворення прямої мови на непряму граматичний час дієслів не змінюється:
The teacher said, «There are seven days in a week».— The teacher said that there are seven days in a week.
6. Report the statements.
1) Sam said, «The Earth moves round the Sun”. 2) Molly said, «The cheetah is the fastest animal in the world”. 3) Nick said, «The Pyramids are in Egypt”. 4) Greg said, «Cows eat grass”. 5) Den said, «Birds can fly”. 6) Ella said, “Ancient Romans spoke Latin”. 7) Ann said, «A man can't live without air”. 8) Susan said, «Archimedes lived in Syracuse”. 9) Jack said, «Leonardo Da Vinci painted The Mona Lisa”. 10) Olga said, “Ostriches can't fly”.
7. Rewrite the following sentences in direct speech.
1) Eddy said that he had already made his bed. 2) Helen said that her friend was speaking on the phone. 3) The teacher said that dolphins are mammals. 4) The woman said that Nick had just left the house. 5) Nelly told me that she would do the ironing later. 6) The policeman said that we had to answer some questions. 7) The shop assistant said that he could wrap our purchase.
8) John said that the Sun is a star. 9) Monica told her mother that she was going to the library. 10) Fred told Betty that he was busy repairing his bike. 11) The waiter said that he could call a taxi for us. 12) The nurse said that we should wait for the doctor. 13) The secretary told me that the chief would be free in half an hour. 15) Jane said that it had been snowing for three hours.
За допомогою непрямої мови також можна передавати накази, прохання, пропозиції тощо. Для їх передачі використовуються дієслова (Introductory Verbs) order, ask, tell, suggest, beg, advise, forbid, warn, insist, promise, agree, refuse, remind etc., після яких вживається інфінітив або герундій. У реченнях з непрямою мовою не вживається слово please:
She said, «Show me your new jeans, please».— She asked me to show her my new jeans.
He said, «Give me your driving licence!”— He ordered me to give him my driving licence.
She said, «Don't touch that vase”.— She asked not to touch that vase.
He said, «Let's have a glass of juice”.— He suggested having a glass of juice.
8. Report the statements.
1) Tony said, «Don't switch the light off, John”. 2) Suzie said to Linda, «Show me the photos, please”. 3) Mother said to Cathy, «Wash the dishes and sweep the floor”. 4) Pam said to her husband, «Don't be late for supper”. 5) The teacher said to us, «Keep silent, please”. 6) The doctor said to Alan, «Open your mouth and show me your tongue”. 7) The customs officer said to Dave, «Give me your passport, please”. 8) The farmer said to us, “Don't be afraid of the dog”. 9) A woman said to her daughter, .Don't drink cold lemonade”. 10) Isabel said to Jerry, .Help me with my suitcase, please”.
9. Report the statements, using the verbs from the box.
to refuse to ask to beg to advise
to invite to deny (2) to agree to forbid
to promise (2) to remind (2) to suggest (2)
1) Wendy said to her brother, .Don't forget to meet Aunt Polly! ” 2) A little boy said to his father, «I really won't tell lies anymore! ” 3) Ben said to his friends, .Let's go to the cinema”. 4) Linda said to Roger, .You shouldn't be so rude to your younger brother”. 5) Father said to Peter, .No, I won't lend you my car”. 6) Sam said to Jane, .Help me with my project, please”. 7) A little girl said, .Please, please, Mummy, buy me that doll! ” 8) Lucy said, .No, I didn't take your camera, Nick”. 9) Vicky said, .Will you come to my birthday party, Mark?” 10) Betty said, «OK, I'll do the shopping, Mum”. 11) Granny said to her little granddaughter, «No, Ann, you mustn't eat sweets before dinner! ” 12) Janet said, .Let's have a cup of coffee, Tina”. 13) Nick said to Cindy, .Of course, I'll phone you”. 14) The teacher said to the pupils, .Don't forget to bring your essays! ” 15) A man said to the policeman, .No, I didn't see people in black masks”.
10. Report what Mrs Lane told her daughter to do. Use appropriate introductory verbs.
Example: Mrs Lane told her daughter to make the beds.
— Make the beds.
— Wash the dishes.
— Walk the dog.
— Don't forget to buy bread and sausages.
— Send this letter, please.
— Remember to buy fresh newspapers.
— Don't watch TV all day.
— Dust the furniture.
— Don't forget to vacuum the carpet in the living room.
— Don't open the door to anyone.
Для того щоб передати непрямою мовою запитання, використовуються слова ask, wonder, want to know. У питальних реченнях із непрямою мовою (загальних запитаннях) підрядна та головна частини поєднуються за допомогою слів if чи whether і граматичні часи змінюються відповідно до правил. У підрядних реченнях такого типу порядок слів прямий (як у розповідному реченні). Знак питання в кінці речень з непрямою мовою не ставиться. Наприклад: Sob said, «Do you have lunch at school, Міке?» — Bob asked if/ whether Mike had lunch at school.
Kate said, «Did you finish your report, Jane? » — Kate wondered if / whether Jane had finished her report.
11. Report the questions.
1) Julia said, .Do you know that boy, Nelly?” 2) Colin said to Eddy, «Will you go on the excursion? ” 3) The doctor said to Molly, .Have you taken the temperature? ” 4) The teacher said to Peter, .Did you translate the text? ” 5) The shop assistant said to us, .Can I help you? ” 6) The child said to his mother, .May I watch the cartoons? ” 7) Martin said, .Does your father work in the bank, Bill? ” 8) Carol said, «Is Ann taking a shower, Mummy? ” 9) The manager said, «Have you typed the text of that document, Linda? ” 10) Sheila said, .Have you been waiting for a long time, Den? ” 11) Tim said, .Were you surfing the Net all day, Henry? ” 12) Victor said to me, .Did you answer all the questions? ” 13) Alice said, .Will you help me to move the sofa, Jack? ” 14) Richard said, .Can you play basketball, Ted? ” 15) The teacher said, .Are you disappointed with the results of your test, Bill? ” 16) The policeman said to the driver, .Were you speeding? ” 17) Isabel said to her husband, .Have you booked a room in the hotel? ” 18) Gordon said to his sister, .Did you mend my jeans? ” 19) Jessica said, .Are the girls still playing in the park? ” 20) The boss said to the secretary, .Have you read my note? ”
12. What did the customs officer ask Brian about? Report the questions.
— Can I see your passport, please?
— Have you got anything to declare?
— Did you buy anything in the Duty Free shop?
— Have you been to our country before?
— Will you stay in the hotel?
— Do you often travel?
— Is this your hand luggage?
— Could you open your suitcase, please?
— Is this your camera?
— May I see your ticket, please?
13. Report the joke.
Last week at a dinner party the hostess asked Mr Baker to sit next to Mrs Jones. Mrs Jones was busy eating. Mr Baker tried to make a conversation.
— A nice day, isn't it? — he said.
— No, I don't think so,— the woman answered.
— A new play is coming to «The Globe» soon. Are you going to see it? — Mr Baker said.
— No,— the woman answered.
— Will you spend your holidays abroad? — Mr Baker asked.
— No,— the woman answered.
— Do you like travelling? — Mr Baker asked again.
— No,— the woman answered.
— Are you enj oying your dinner? — asked Mr Baker in despair.
— Young man,— said the woman, — if you eat more and talk less, we'll both enjoy our dinner.
Для того щоб передати непрямою мовою спеціальні запитання, головна та підрядна частини речення поєднуються за допомогою відповідного питального слова (when, what, where, which, how), граматичний час у підрядній частині змінюється за правилами. У підрядних реченнях такого типу порядок слів прямий (як у розповідному реченні). Знак питання в кінці речень з непрямою мовою не ставиться:
Den said, «Where are you going, Nick?» — Den asked where Nick was going.
Ann said, «Why did you buy those flowers, Alex? » — Ann wondered why Alex had bought those flowers.
14. Report the questions.
1) Jack said to me, «Why did you do that? » 2) Janetsaid, «Where are you going on Sunday, Kate? »3) A woman said, «How much does that magazine cost? » 4) Tom said to his wife, «What will you cook for supper? ” 5) Mother said to her daughter, «What time did the film finish?» 6) Chris said, .How long have you been working as a manager, Henry? »7) The policeman said to me, «What is your name? »8) The shop assistant said to the woman, «What size do you wear? » 9) The waiter said to us, «Have you already read the menu? »10) The boss said to his secretary, «Why are you late? » 11) The journalist said to an actor, .How many films have you starred in? » 12) A tourist said to the guide, «How many countries have you visited? ” 13) A girl said to a doctor, « Why do you like your job? » 14) Ron said, .How many foreign languages can you speak, Angela? » 15) Janet said, «Where will Olga wait for us, Victor? » 16) Roy said, .Whose umbrella did you take, Max? »17) Tina said to the workers, .When will you finish decorating the living room? »
18) A doctor said to Nick, .How did you hurt your leg?»
19) Eddy said, .Why are you fixing the old bike, Phil?» 20) Ted said, .What do you want for dessert, Kate?»
15. Report the dialogue.
Mrs Mills: Can I help you?
Andrew: Well, I'm interested in taking a computer course.
Mrs Mills: We have a course starting on the 1st of February.
Andrew: That sounds fine. How long is the course?
Mrs Mills: It lasts for three months with classes every Monday and Thursday.
Andrew: And how much does it cost?
Mrs Mills: It's £250. That includes books and classes.
Andrew: OK. Can I enrol?
Mrs Mills: Yes, of course. I'll just take your details.
16. Students of Professor Higgins were going to have their first English exam and they asked the Professor a lot of questions about it. Write the exact words of the students.
Brian asked the Professor what time the exam would start. Alice wanted to know how many questions every exam card included. Nick asked if the students could use dictionaries during the exam. Sally wondered what rules they should revise before the exam. Mark wanted to know how much time the students would have to get ready with the answers. Diana asked if they would know their marks at once. Nigel wondered who would assist the Professor. Sam wanted to know what would happen if somebody didn't pass the exam.
17. Report the dialogue.
Paul: I really need some advice, Jack. Can you help me?
Jack: Well, what's the problem?
P: I'm thinking of getting a new job. What should I do?
J: First of all, you can look in the job section of the newspapers.
P: That's a good idea. I'll do that.
J: You can also write to companies you want to work for
and ask if they need any staff.
P: That's excellent advise. Thank you, Jack.
Обставини місця та часу у реченнях з непрямою мовою змінюються таким чином:
here — there; this — that; these — those; now _ /hen, at that time; today — that day; tonight — that night-yesterday — the day before, the previous day; tomorrow — the next day, the following day; last week/month, etc.— the week/month before, the previous week/month;
next week/month, etc.— the next week/month, the following week/ month;
an hour ago — an hour before/earlier.
Ben said, «І'ІІ phone you tomorrow».— Ben said that he would phone me the following day/the next day.
18. Report the sentences.
1) George said to his business partner, «I'll go to the bank tomorrow». 2) Patrick said to Molly, «We may visit aunt Mary tonight». 3) Sam said to Peter, «I didn't see Ella at the university yesterday». 4) Gordon said to Tim, «I've been very busy these days». 5) The secretary said, «A bank manager sent us a letter this morning». 6) Nelly said, «Where did you spend last weekend, Jane? » 7) Alex said to us, «We won't go out this evening». 8) Laura said to her sister, «I’ll get my diploma next week». 9) Monica said to her husband, « Denny is playing football with his friends now». 10) Jean said to me, .The performance began half an hour ago».
19. Write the exact words of the film star and the journalist.
Last Tuesday a journalist from a popular magazine interviewed the famous film star Amy. The journalist asked Amy how long she had been a star in the soap opera «Dangerous Love». Amy said that she had been starring for two years. The journalist wondered when she had started acting. Amy answered she had started performing when she had been very young. She added that by the time she had been nine, she could sing and dance and had had her first job singing in a TV commercial. The journalist asked if it had been difficult to get the role in «Dangerous Love». Amy said it had been a real exam for her. The journalist wondered if Amy had any advice for other young actors and actresses. Amy said that they had to be very determined and needed a lot of patience. They couldn't expect to get the work immediately. The journalist wanted to know about Amy's plans for the next year. Amy said she was still acting in «Dangerous Love» and she was going to have a part in the following Steven Spielberg movie.
20. Find mistakes and correct them.
1) Nick said he is going to the station. 2) Jill asked if had Mark sent a letter to his uncle. 3) The secretary asked if I could say my name. 4) Pam said that she had got a parcel this morning. 5) Jane wondered where Henry would go tomorrow. 6) Den asked where was my friend from. 7) Mary said that she has already fed the cat. 8) The doctor said I can go out. 9) Sam wanted to know where Nick is going. 10) Dolly asked who Monica had met yesterday.
1. Complete the sentences with say or tell in the correct form.
1) Stuart looked at me but ... nothing. 2) .I'd like to ... you a story about two brothers*, a man ... to children. 3) These children must be twins. I can't ... one boy from the other. 4) Emily always ... her prayers before the meals. 5) Mike ... me he was hungry. 6) Betty ... .good morning* to her pupils and started the lesson. 7) Could you ... us the way to the nearest metro station, please? 8) A woman ... to her nephew, .I'm glad to see you*. 9) Can you ... me the time? 10) Would you like to ... a few words to your aunt?