|МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ
НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ АВІАЦІЙНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
СУЧАСНІ ПРОБЛЕМИ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТУ
(23 жовтня 2015 р.)
Київ – 2015
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE
National Aviation university
The MATERIALS of the XI International Academic Professional Conference
“Modern Management Problems”
October 23, 2015
Management of Foreign Economic Activity of the Enterprise Department
Features of the management personnel evaluation
Anna Stankiewicz-Mroz Ph.D., Maciej Bielecki, Ph.D.
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
The processes of global changes occurring at the present stage of development of the Ukrainian society require new approaches and principles of enterprises’ management. The priority ones are foundations of the theory of management as a science of competitive professional governance. After all, the high level of management culture involving the theory and knowledge management processes, their laws, properties, functional content, types, forms and methods of it is a guarantee of the leader’s effective performance
Estimation of the management personnel has become one of the most important instruments of the formation of HR policy of organization. Only on the basis of an objective assessment of factors and conditions it is possible to choose the best option among the existing alternatives. Ignoring these issues in practice can lead to the development and implementation of ineffective HR decisions. It can have negative impact on personnel and economic performance of the company
An analysis of the scientific sources dealing with the formation of the system of indicators used to measure staff found that there is no single systemic approach to the interpretation of the personnel evaluation, its essence and importance. Most scientists use the assessment only as a tool to achieve the main goal, not highlighting it as an independent object of research. It limits its essence only by applied aspects. It reduces the possibility to use existing methods of evaluation
It is proved that disclosing the problem of personnel evaluation should be clearly described criteria for evaluation. For selecting specific indicators to assess staff is important to consider the general orientation of the organization to achieve specific performance. For example, in some cases, the emphasis may be placed on achieving quantitative indicators (increasing output). In others, the emphasis is on the assessment and promotion of quality indicators.
It is studied the features of formation personnel evaluation systems in organizations:
if it is assessed individual contribution and promotion of each employee separately and when attention is focused on collective forms of work. Thus, stimulation of such organizations is based primarily on the assessment of the results of the whole team, and the distribution of earnings within the team is made based on an assessment of individual employees contribution to the total results of the enterprises’ branch.
In order to create an optimal system of personnel evaluation, equally balanced in terms of accuracy, objectivity, simplicity, convenience and clarity it is reviewed existing approaches and personnel evaluation systems, each of which has both positive and negative sides. Tools of personnel evaluation system were shaped by the needs of solving practical problems of production and management activities based on specific methods. It is proved that the personnel evaluation methods must comply with the structure of the company, the type of personnel activities, evaluation aims. They should be simple and clear and include some quantitative indicators, combine written and oral tasks.
It is concluded that the staff assessment combines great information, analytical and reference value. To improve the efficiency of evaluation is necessary to unify and bring together the necessary criteria. Only a complete personnel evaluation system can ensure the effectiveness of economic development under two major conditions. At first, you must consider the features of the previous and current state of the economy, the mentality and behavioral characteristics of the population, duration of conversion period and other factors and conditions forming the peculiarities of the country. At second, its foundations must be based on the principles and mechanisms dominating in personnel estimates of personnel of the most developed countries with market economies.
Kolb D.A., Osland J.S., Rubin I.M. Organizational Behavior: an Experiential Approach. 6 th ed. (Prentice-Hall, 2001).
Mahoney J. Stakeholder responsibilities: turning the ethical tables //Business Ethics – A European Review. –2011, No 4. 212 – 218 р.
PROBLEMS OF THE EU INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT
R. Gradzki, Doctor of Science, professor
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Innovations serve as a tool for sustainable development, strengthening leadership potential and competitiveness of the EU enterprises. Currently primary focus is on innovative entrepreneurship that provides mobilization of all enterprise resources for the implementation of R&D investments, the search for new ways of enterprise development on foreign markets by employing new business ideas.
In recent years, the average innovative growth of European companies has slowed down, due to the unfavorable economic environment factors and sufficient differences in innovation activity depending on the EU country. In 2014 average innovation performance index accounted 0.54% in the EU region and 0.32% in Poland, being a moderate innovator . The decline in innovation activity, excluding industrial companies, is an adverse trend that does not ensure the creation of a solid foundation for long-term development.
The need for the innovative entrepreneurship development is associated with increased competition in international markets since simple innovation imitation and minimizing costs by using cheap resources do not allow facing modern challenges. US as a strong competitor to the EU have significant advantages in terms of scientific cooperation between private and public sectors, and in commercialization of innovations. Therefore, the main efforts of the European business community should be aimed at improving the interaction between all participants in the innovation process. According to the EU program strengthening the competitiveness of European enterprises, especially small and medium businesses is the most important issue.
Dynamic young EU companies that are flexible and have better relationships with research institutions, unite their efforts with already established firms, which have necessary resources and capabilities to implement innovative ideas . Due to this, each party receives additional benefits and distributes existing risks of innovative activity.
The best conditions for opening venture capital firms are created in Denmark, the Netherlands and Estonia, while Poland, Denmark and Switzerland are the best bases to gain access to the resources needed for innovative entrepreneurship.
During 2008-2014 the following problems in innovative entrepreneurship development were identified:
- urgent need to develop partnerships for improving innovation effectiveness;
- prevalence of incremental innovations over radical innovations in terms of R&D costs;
- limited use of open innovation models;
- reduction in implementation of innovations by large companies, along with a trend of implementation innovative ideas by flexible small and medium businesses;
- problems on “stand up” and “start up” phases of innovative entrepreneurship (challenges in fundraising and better access to resources needed for fostering start-ups and other innovation actions).
The conducted research allows for conclusion that a high degree of competitive pressure forces, even if there are significant risks, pushes to take advantages of the economic benefits that can be obtained through innovations. The greatest results can be achieved through introduction of open innovation models, collaborative innovations and innovative entrepreneurship based on mutually beneficial partnership of business, research institutions and government.
1. Collaborative Innovation Transforming Business, Driving Growth. – World Economic Forum, August 2015. – 44 р.
2. Enhancing Europe’s Competitiveness Fostering Innovation-driven Entrepreneurship in Europe. – World Economic Forum, June 2014. – 64 р.
3. Innovative entrepreneurship in Poland. The revealed and hidden potential of Polish innovation / [Electronic resource]. – Warsaw: Polish Agency for Enterprise Development, 2015. – Mode of access: http://www.parp.gov.pl/files/74/81/806/22524.pdf
THE QUALITY OF CORPORATE LEADERSHIP
I. Zarubinska, Doctor of Science, professor
N. Prischepa, Ph.D., associate professor
National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
One of the most actual problem of management practice – the problem of quality of corporate leadership and leadership competencies. Our research is devoted to solving theoretical and practical issues include: the evolving challenges facing companies and the implications for the demands placed on leaders; what new leadership competencies are required and what this should mean for recruitment, executive assessment and development, team development, and new director training; the role of corporate governance, including new director training, succession planning, and board evaluations.
The quality of corporate leadership has come under great scrutiny recently as many have questioned the ability of leaders to articulate and deliver a vision commanding the broad support of investors, customers, employees, and other stakeholders.
Most large companies acknowledge the need to be more responsive to shifting societal expectations to become more open and accountable. And yet those same companies often struggle to translate good intentions into good practice. In no small way this is due to the lack of any practical guidance addressing the outmoded way in which leaders tend to be selected and developed. Therefore this topic is developed in special literature [1-3].
The objective of the research: to describe in an accessible and practical way the competencies necessary for senior managers, executive teams, and boards to lead with sustainability in mind.
The issues investigated include:
The evolving challenges facing companies and the implications for the demands placed on leaders.
What new leadership competencies are required and what this should mean for recruitment, executive assessment and development, team development, and new director training.
The role of corporate governance, including new director training, succession planning, and board evaluations.
This research seeks to achieve its objective by presenting insights drawn from the experience of those in leadership positions in companies recognized for their sophistication in balancing business success and a social license to operate.
Therefore, the starting assumptions for this research are:
The business case for corporate responsibility and for a much more ambitious approach to the challenge of sustainability is robust.
Much can be learned by examining those companies that have done well by leading the corporate response to this challenge.
The best place to learn about the role of leadership is from those leading these exemplary companies, and indeed from those expert in the recruitment and development of such leaders.
The most useful way to present the findings is with reference to leadership competencies, given the influence of competency frameworks on organizational life.
The term "leading companies" is used here to identify companies recognized for being at, or actively working toward, the leading edge of corporate responsibility and sustainability. That is, to identify the companies and those working in them that are the focus of this research.
The findings connected with the five main themes:
Living with uncertainty and intricacy.
A relational initiative.
Advancing outside the system.
Leaders expand leaders.
We hope this research will be a useful first step to making progress on a matter that leading companies account will be at the forefront of their efforts over the next few years.
So, a good leader must both deliver against short-run targets and build capacity. Delivering against targets by drawing down on capacity is a sin. Leadership and talent are the most important agenda items for a board.
CPSL, 2010. "Sustainability Leadership: A Force for Change," Cambridge: University of Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership
Generation Investment Management, 2012. "Sustainable Capitalism," London: Generation Investment Management LLP
Tomorrow's Company, 2012. "The Invisible Elephant and the Pyramid Treasure," London: Center for Tomorrow's Company
THE SOLUTION TO THE EXISTING PROBLEMS OF MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE
D. Avramenko, student, A. Vasylchenko, student
Superviser – N. Prischepa, Ph.D., associate professor.
National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
The history of management thought has roots that go into the depth of centuries and millennia. Opinions on problems of management and scientists are Egyptian papyri, and on clay tablets with spina Tigris and Euphrates. But combine them with the management right is not possible, because it was basically recommendations on governance.
Throughout history, people admired figures such as Alexander Macedonian and Napoleon, Henry Ford and Paul Gates more than outstanding scientists, thinkers and poets. The success of these figures contributed not only what they know, and what we wanted to achieve. The most amazing thing always thought that they were able to subdue the others and make them deliberately, persistently, almost voluntarily act to achieve this goal. The ability to control or production, or the army, or the state and has always been called art or talent. From it the fate of nations, wars, peoples and individuals. However, in the twentieth century businesses, organizations, military units and independent states has become so much, and their interactions are such strong and diverse that to wait and look for managerial talent for each executive position and was never anyone. That is why the art of management has become a management science - management (from the English "Management" - management, organization).
Management - an activity that is consistent with the objectives and tasks of developing business plans, determines not only what and when to do, but how and who will do what outlined forms the working procedures in all stages of management and controls.
Today, there are many problems of management. Let’s single out some of them and try to give them a brief description.
The combination of 'owner - the general manager. «One of the features of contemporary Ukrainian business is to combine in one person the main owner and general manager. Great temptation owner-director of maximum control processes in the enterprise leads to the fact that:
1. Suppressed initiative;
2. Staff are selected on the basis of loyalty, not professionalism;
3. Budget Enterprise centralized all, often tiny, costs are controlled by the director, which reduces the efficiency of decision-making in the field;
4. The structure is bureaucratic and inflexible;
5. Marketing Strategy often change.
The crisis growth. The crisis growth occurs during the expansion of the company. Extensions may be associated with a sharp increase of demand for goods, opening new market opportunities, leadership ambitions. This expansion of the enterprise is not always justified. The lack of forecasts and strategic planning leads to what the end result is many companies expanding their losses and closing. The expansion is justified only when it increases the stability of the company or increasing its market value.
Inability to guide companies to set goals and objectives, criteria to determine performance. Lack of experience and knowledge owners and managers leads to such seemingly not paramount, but too important circumstances as inability to define goals and assign tasks. It means the full range of goals and objectives - as subordinate company in general, and suppliers, marketing intermediaries. As a result - inefficient expenditure of significant funds, "throwing from side to side" instead of market strategy.
Neglect education. In many enterprises, there was a tendency to "cultivation" of personnel. Many managers prefer people with experience, but young professionals in marketing, management, finance.
Replacement of the founding owners to new, effective owners. If a retrospective analysis of becoming the leading corporations, it is impossible not to notice an interesting general trend: after a certain period, usually 10 years, is the replacement of the founding owners of enterprises to new owners (especially evident in the automotive companies). That is, judging from the deadline, today we have almost come to the time when they begin the replacement process owners. However, any idea is relevant and adequate in certain circumstances and not all managers have the talent to feel time when you need to change yourself and change corporate strategy, and this leads to a deterioration in economic performance of the company, and sometimes bankruptcy.
Change in the leadership of founding companies on effective management. This problem is already beginning to feel business owners. In connection with these urgent problem tor-training managers of Ukrainian companies. This is because the level of education and knowledge managers that level today below the average level of knowledge of their subordinates, who are mostly professional education. Therefore, they can not always act as directors objectives clearly and correctly formulate problems and objectives, to evaluate the timing and quality of their performance.
The output of major foreign companies. The situation in many markets in Ukraine has changed dramatically with the release of them foreign companies. On the one hand, this is a positive development, which will intensify competition in the market, forcing Ukrainian enterprises move to modern management techniques. On the other hand, the output of foreign investment enterprises is often accompanied by suppression, personnel outflow of domestic enterprises, closure of companies. In this situation requires a change of priorities in economic policy in general. Under the Foreign Investment Promotion should be construed increased investment in domestic enterprises, and not help foreign companies entering the Ukrainian market with their goods and services.
Problems of modern enterprises is certainly not limited to this list.
The solution to the existing problems of management in Ukraine requires systemic mechanisms at the national level. One of the main elements of this mechanism is to build a national system of standards of management. Wider introduction of modern management techniques and, above all, understanding the causes of their problems entrepreneurs contribute to round tables and seminars with leading experts. You also need a certain change of priorities of the state. Macroeconomic indicators have improved not only on changes in the world market, on avenues of increasing the efficiency of individual enterprises.
1. "Marketing in Ukraine" for 2000, №№ 3 (5), 4 (6).
2. Myntsberh G., Alstrэnd B., J. Lэmpbel. School strategies / Per. s English. Ed. JN Kapturevskoho. - St. Petersburg: Publishing "Peter", 2000.
3. Nemtsov VD, Dovgan LE, Siniok GF "Management", Tutorial, 2000.
4. Zozuliov O. Dligach A. Pisarenko NA Modern problems of management of Ukrainian companies. // Ukraine economy. - 2002. - № 6 (487). - P. 41-46.
IMPROVING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE COMPANY ON THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET
T. Mostenska, Doctor of Science, professor V. Balaba, student
National Aviation University, Kyiv, Ukraine
In the modern conditions, the maintaining and achieving the competitiveness of companies on international markets is an important condition for increasing the national competitiveness. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the trends of world development and according to them to pursue a policy aimed at reducing the cost of selling of products, improve the efficiency of external and internal factors that ensure the competitiveness of the enterprise.
Improving the competitiveness of enterprises needs the development and implementation of certain competitive strategies. In general, the competitive strategy is a complex of some measures that make it possible to hold the position of firm in the market by developing the advanced products, in order to extend the offer, to increase a market share in certain sectors, to meet the needs of consumers and, of course, to achieve the high level of competitiveness by enhancing the image.
There are the most important strategies to improve competitiveness of the company: 1) the strategy of leading on the basis for reducing costs of prices. Low cost of production is the basis for the appropriate level of prices; 2) the strategy of differentiation; 3) the strategy of focusing the content of such a strategy is to obtain (the formation of) the competitive advantage and satisfaction of market position on a fairly narrow market segment (including product or geographic features).
The choice of such a strategy depends on the ability of the company to serve a narrow segment of the market with its specific requirements more effectively than competitors that focused on a wider range of needs.
As regards the image of the enterprise, the development of market economy, contributed to the increase of the various categories of actors who are interested in the proper formation of the image of the company. The purpose of measures of imagemaking is out pricing policy, which forms the image of the goods and services, ideology, and of the enterprise in general. These measures consist of a system of concerted actions.
The corporate image is formed of the following components:
1) products and services that include the quality of product, innovation; 2) social responsibility that includes ethics, understanding of the role of enterprises in society. 3) environment that includes production facilities, offices. 4) communication is publications, personal communication, advertising.
Creating a positive image of the company on the external market is formed by using the developed appropriate strategies at different hierarchical tiers of enterprise management
At the present maintenance of competitiveness on the international market play its important benefits of development of capabilities of workforce, study the information in the market for opportunities to improve competitiveness.
The competitiveness of firms on the external market depends on various factors: political, economic, institutional, cultural, and educational. All of these factors are divided into internal and external. According to the theory of competition of M. Porter, success in international competition determines where and how productively applies the factors of production.
A major role among the internal factors plays a quality level of enterprise management, namely: a level of training of managers, and the ability to skillfully negotiate under conditions of constant change. Also, the internal factors include the technical level of production, the level of labor productivity, the parameters of production technology.
These factors determine the level of production and sales. But for the purposes of determining the competitiveness needs to take into account the ratio of production costs and the sale of this company to the level of production costs and the sale of the company-competitor.
The external factors include: level of novelty of economic, namely the participation of the country in foreign trade, macroeconomic stability, the degree of compliance of public policy to the requirements of competition, the level of development of modern infrastructure in the country.
Therefore, the competitiveness of the enterprises on international markets is determined by all the complex of factors at all levels that determine the benefits of the country's goods on the world market. But, determining the competitiveness only on the principles of oppositions and benefits is invalid, in the theory of competitive advantage of Porter being given insufficient attention of microeconomics of enterprises, where create the competitive advantages.
International level of competitiveness means the better ensure of international competitive advantage and sustainable skills to successfully competing in any country of the world based on international standards.
To increase the competitiveness of enterprises in the external market it is necessary better develop the knowledge of the world theory and practice, it is will give the possibility of reducing the cost , resources and time.
For example, the production transferred to the countries with low-cost labor and raw materials, and marketing and sales focus near consumers of products. As a result, the use of the competitive advantages of several countries, it increases the competitiveness.
The second factor of increasing the competitiveness on the international market is the skill level of the staff.
This competitive advantage defines the support for innovation, the ability to correctly assess the situation, readiness to attract the talented people, promotion of the initiative
Also, the main areas of increase of competitiveness of the company is the management of innovation and technology, production, use of information and management of changes.
In the field of technology is a joint work with foreign investors, innovation promotes the achievement of the market competitive advantage.
In manufacturing, the promising directions are the improvement of equipment, material and organizational process, improve the quality of information in all parts of the production process.
Activation of human factor is accompanied by a change in the system of organizational values and rules of behavior. The staff is an important capital of the enterprise, its training helps to reduce the social tensions and improve the climate of the organization.
General measures to improve the competitiveness include the study of consumers ' queries and analysis of competitors, the creation of new products, improvement of qualitative characteristics of products, identifying the benefits of the product, determine the modifications of the product, using the price factor of increasing the competitiveness of production, improvement of service in the process of buying and after sales service, product differentiation
More Porter pointed out that the governments to provide adequate positive impact on the competitiveness should encourage change, promote internal competition and stimulate innovation.
Therefore, the support of high competitiveness of the company means that all its resources are used so effectively that it becomes more profitable than its main competitors. It simultaneously provides that the enterprise occupies a stable place in the market of goods and services and its products enjoy a constant demand.